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Kaufen bei Amazon.deBei Amazon.de kaufenChrysantheme und Schwert: Formen der japanischen Kultur (edition suhrkamp) (Taschenbuch)

ISBN: 351812014X
ASIN: 351812014X
EAN: 9783518120149
Autor: Ruth Benedict
Erschienen bei: Suhrkamp Verlag
Erscheinungsdatum: 2006-07-31
Preis: EUR 18,00
in Partnerschaft mit Amazon.de

Buchtitel: Chrysantheme und Schwert [The Chrysanthemum and the Sword]
Autorin: Ruth Benedict [aus dem Englischen von Jobst-Mathias Spannagel]
Verlag, Erscheinungsjahr: Suhrkamp, 2006
ISBN 3-518-12014-X

Da ist es endlich! Das Referenzwerk der modernen Japanologie in deutscher Übersetzung. Soeben erschienen. Die amerikanische Originalausgabe stammt aus dem Jahr 1946 und die Leistung der Autorin richtig zu würdigen versteht, wer es mit Kompendien vergleicht, die seither erschienen sind und die nichts weniger beanspruchen, als Nicht-Japanern das japanische Wesen zu erklären, aber jämmerlich an dieser Aufgabe scheitern. Erlebnisliteratur a la “Warum Japaner nerven” offenbaren viel und zumeist Blümerantes über den Schreiber oder die Schreiberin, aber verschaffen Interessierten keinerlei Handhabe, eine von der eigenen mehr oder weniger geschiedene Kultur wirklich zu verstehen.
Ruth Benedict begann mit den Vorarbeiten ihrer Studie noch während des Krieges. Sie schöpfte aus den in den USA verfügbaren Werken über Japan in englischer und japanischer Sprache, zehrte von intensiven Gesprächen mit in den USA lebenden oder ausgewanderten Japanern und Japanerinnen (dem issei oder nissei genannten Personenkreis), sowie von den zahlreichen Untersuchungsberichten über Japaner in amerikanischer Kriegsgefangenschaft. Das Faktum, dass es ihr in dem genannten Zeitraum nicht möglich gewesen ist, mit Japanern in Japan in Kontakt zu treten und, was heute zum Standartrepertoire sämtlicher japanologischer Lehrstühle auf der Welt zählt, nämlich Feldforschungen und empirische Erhebungen in Japan selbst zu betreiben, reicht keinesfalls als Argument gegen das Buch und schmälert seine Leistungen überhaupt nicht. Ich wage sogar die Behauptung, dass es gegenüber Studien, die einen Mangel an Brillanz durch Datenwust zu kompensieren trachten, eindeutig absticht.
Zu einem Zeitpunkt, als General Mac Arthur in seiner väterlich-arroganten Überheblichkeit die Japaner mit Kindern verglich [diese “Kinder” hatten beinahe die halbe Welt erobert!], war es Ruth Benedict darum zu tun, Japaner vor allem als sie selbst zu verstehen und ein solches Verständnis den mit Japanern zusammenarbeitenden Besatzungsmächten nahe zu legen.
Nach Nakanes “Die Struktur der japanischen Gesellschaft” [Eine Besprechung findet sich auf diesen Seiten!], ist “Chrysantheme und Schwert” dasjenige Werk, das mich in meiner Befassung mit Japan immer wieder auf dem Boden der Tatsachen halten wird. Bedauern muss man lediglich, dass der vorliegenden Edition keine Bewertung, die den Rang des Buches vor dem Hintergrund der zwischenzeitlich sich vollziehenden Gesellschaftstransformation beleuchtet, beigegeben ist. Auch die Rezeptionsgeschichte in Japan wäre als ein interessantes Kapitel interkultureller Forschungspraxis wert, interessierten Kreisen zugänglich gemacht zu werden.
Während die bedeutende japanische Soziologin Nakane Chie die Charakterisierung der japanischen Gesellschaft, verkürzt gesagt, in vertikaler Organisation, in Hierarchisierungsstrukturen absolviert, arbeitet sich Benedict anhand von zentralen Begriffen ab, die in Japan jedermann (und jeder Frau) verständlich sind, die in platter Übersetzung aber zu zahlreichen unentschuldbaren Missverständnissen führen (on, gimu, giri, makoto, …). Das Individuum wächst in Japan in ein Verpflichtungsgespinst hinein, das nicht den Charakter der Bürde gewinnt, das es für einen Menschen in westlicher Kultur (mit dem für sie typischen Kanon an ethischen Imperativen, Internalisierungen und Sanktionsmechanismen) annehmen würde. Seinen Verpflichtungen und daraus resultierenden Handlungsanweisungen jeweils gerecht zu werden, ist in Japan tatsächlich eine Lebensaufgabe.
Man erfährt schlüssig und nachvollziehbar, warum in japanischen Romanen und Theaterstücken, und somit auch im Film, das Happy-End eine Seltenheit ist [S. 170], bekommt die japanische Einstellung gegenüber Spiegeln erklärt [S. 251], erhält eine sehr kurzweilige Einführung in Zen [S. 201 ff.] und bekommt u.a. verständlich gemacht, was einen Japaner wirklich beleidigt. Simone de Beauvoir paraphrasierend ließe sich sagen, man kommt nicht als Japaner auf die Welt, zum Japaner wird man gemacht. Und zum Japaner oder zur Japanerin gemacht werden kann man nur in Japan. Darum ist Japan wirklich einzigartig. [Verösterreichern kann man beispielsweise auch in Polen oder Italien!] Wie das vor sich geht, das schildert Ruth Benedict auf sehr eingängige und das japanische Wesen an keiner Stelle herabwürdigende Art. Ein erstaunlicher Beitrag zur Völkerverständigung, erschienen knapp nach den Unmenschlichkeiten des Großen Krieges.

14 Kommentar bis jetzt ↓

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    Maximum the Hormone sind mir schon lange ein Begriff. Bei YouTube und Imeem.com findest du jede Menge von denen. Die waren schon immer gut, aber das nstuee Album, dass ich von denen kenne (aus dem auch dieses Lied stammt und das genau wie dieses Lied heisst) ist wirklich nen Sau gutes Album. Adere Perlen auf den Album sind: Bikini Sports Punchin (ich liebe den Refrain), Koi no Mega Lover (der ist sogar fast schon Mainstream tauglich, das wfcrde deutsches Radio vielleich spielen), What’s up people (heftig! Das ist was um seine Anlage mal voll aufzudrehen, freut die Nachbarn) und echt hit Verde4chtig ist Chu Chu Lovely Muni Muni Mura Mura Purin Purin Boron Nurururerorero (der Titel ist wirklich so lang! Der Song hat so einen Ohrwurmrefrain und klingt so richtig schf6n nach Punk; aber leider ist der Text nicht mainstreamtauglich, weil da geht es um den Fetish vieler Japaner ffcr junge Schuldme4dchen). Die anderen Songs auf den Album sind aber auch alle nicht schlecht.

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